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Cultivation Effects Of A Newspaper On Reality Estimates And Explicit And Implicit Attitudes

"Phillip Flack" (2019-10-08)

This paper explores the cultivation effect of a newspaper on its readers’ reality estimates and attitudes. Additionally, the study tries to advance cultivation research by examining implicit attitudes (i.e., automatic affective reactions toward an object). A content analysis of four months of news coverage in one particular newspaper showed that foreigners were overrepresented as offenders and that the newspaper had a negative view of the EU. According to cultivation theory, it is assumed that the more people read a newspaper, the more their reality estimates and attitudes correspond to the most recurrent, stable, and overarching patterns of the newspaper’s content. To test this hypothesis, a total of 453 students participated in a study that used a cross-lagged panel design with two waves and a time-lag of two months. Consistent with the cultivation hypothesis, those who spent more time reading the newspaper were more likely to overestimate the frequency of foreigners as offenders (i.e., first-order cultivation) and had more negative self-reported attitudes toward the EU (i.e., second-order cultivation). Additionally, those who read more of the newspaper showed more negative implicit attitudes toward the EU (i.e., implicit cultivation). The data show evidence of a significant causal influence of newspaper exposure on implicit attitudes, and a marginally significant causal effect on the overestimation of foreigners as offenders and on explicit attitudes toward the EU. The consideration of implicit attitudes as an additional dependent variable could advance cultivation theory and research.

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Many times we see lot of people leaving their jobs because they found the work place politics affecting their life. Internal politics involving the people at work place are some times bad and avoidable. These politics not only affect the normal working of job, but also may some time cause people to quite their jobs. This results in lose of human resource of a company. To get the good people for working in the organization is a difficult task. However by ignoring the internal politics at work place can cost the companies dearly. People usually want to be remaining in group; they do not like others to enter their group. This tendency sometimes made lot of subgroups in the office. For every group the agenda of their group is more important than what is required. They try to promote the people in their group more over the others. They sometimes also try to let down the people of other group. This creates inter group rivalries. One group try to hinder the work of other group, in this they even forget the goals of organization.

Group rivalries are most common and can be seen in big offices where lot of people work. These group politics are one of reason for collapse of work due to the non corporation and are of great cause of low performance. Second politics is seen in individual basis. Many people try to be smart and play with the emotions of other. They are not associated to any other, still they are in all group. They pretend to be the friends of many, but actually they are with nobody. There main purpose is to achieve own results. They create misunderstanding between the people. They remove their enemy by creating a bad image for them in others eye. They never fight their enemies directly, but provoke others to take revenge for them. They try to make their enemy alone by creating misunderstanding with his friends. They make the person alone and then become friend of it. Now they know the secret about him and upon feasible time use them against him. In this way they are able to remove their enemy without fighting him directly. These kinds of politics are most dangerous and to know that some one is doing it against us is a difficult task. This kind of politics is main reason behind the many, who leave their jobs? So we should be alert of politics on the work place and try to avoid indulging in them. Indulging in them may unnecessary cause use lot of difficulties and simultaneously should aware about the others politics about us.