Hipertensão resistente: abordagem clínica

Elizabeth Silaid Muxfeldt, Bernardo Fróes Chedier Barreira, Cibele Isaac Saad Rodrigues

Resumo


Hipertensão arterial resistente é definida como a pressão arterial de consultório não controlada, apesar do uso de três ou mais anti-hipertensivos, incluindo, preferencialmente, um diurético. Indivíduos em uso de quatro ou mais medicamentos com controle pressórico também são considerados hipertensos resistentes. Por sua vez, hipertensão refratária é a pressão arterial não controlada, apesar do uso de cinco ou mais drogas, incluindo um tiazídico de ação prolongada e um antagonista da aldosterona. Sua prevalência vem crescendo com o envelhecimento da população e o avanço da obesidade, estando relacionada às altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade de origem cardiovascular e renal. A abordagem diagnóstica se baseia em quatro pontos: afastar pseudorresistência, identificar o fenômeno do jaleco branco, investigar causas secundárias e identificar lesões subclínicas para estratificação do risco cardiovascular. O objetivo terapêutico é o controle da pressão arterial de 24 horas. Mudanças de estilo de vida devem ser implementadas e as três primeiras drogas devem incluir um diurético adequado, um inibidor do sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona e um bloqueador de canais de cálcio. Persistindo o descontrole pressórico, adicionamos a quarta droga: espironolactona. Quanto aos hipertensos refratários, novas modalidades terapêuticas vêm sendo desenvolvidas, como a denervação renal e a estimulação do barorreflexo.


Palavras-chave


pressão sanguínea; hipertensão; sistema nervoso simpático; hiperaldosteronismo; resistência a medicamentos; anti-hipertensivos

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Referências


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23925/1984-4840.2018v20i3a3

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