Sobre o empirismo do Empirismo Lógico

Autores

  • Thomas Uebel

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.23925/2764-0892.2021.v1.n1.e55724

Palavras-chave:

Empirismo, Empirismo Lógico, Moritz Schlick, Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath

Resumo

Este artigo adverte contra o mal-entendido da abordagem dos empiristas lógicos sobre os conceitos de experiência e empirismo. Longe de expressar concepções de formas de ideias tradicionalistas, esses próprios conceitos foram repensados e remodelados para estar de acordo com seu objetivo geral de adequar a filosofia contemporânea da ciência a um propósito. Para este fim, este artigo desarma os supostos contra-exemplos do fundacionalismo de Schlick e do Aufbau de Carnap e exemplifica o entendimento pretendido por exemplos da teorização fisialista de Carnap e Neurath.

Referências

AYER, A. J. (ed.) Logical Positivism, New York: Free Press, 1959.

BENTLEY, J. Logical Empiricism and Naturalism: Neurath and Carnap’s Meta-Theory of Science. PhD dissertation, University of Manchester, 2021.

BOYD, N. M. “Enriched Evidence.” Philosophy of Science 85:2018, p. 403–421.

CARNAP, R. Der logische Aufbau der Welt, Berlin: Weltkreis-Verlag, 1928. Trans. The Logical Structure of the World, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967, repr. Chicago: Open Court, 2003.

CARNAP, R. Logische Syntax der Sprache, Vienna: Springer, 1934. Rev. ed. trans. The Logical Syntax of Language, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Cie, 1937, repr. Chicago: Open Court, 2002.

CARNAP, R. “Testability and Meaning”. Philosophy of Science 3: 1936-37, p. 419-471; 4: p. 1-40.

CARNAP, R. Foundations of Logic and Mathematics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939.

CARNAP, R. Logical Foundations of Probability. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1950.

CARNAP. R. “Beobachtungssprache und theoretische Sprache.” Dialectica 12: 1958, p. 236–248. Trans. “Observational Language and Theoretical Language” in HINTIKKA, J. (ed.) Rudolf Carnap, Logical Empiricist, Dordrecht: Reidel, 1975, p. 75-85.

CARNAP, R. “Vorwort zur zweiten Auflage”, Der logische Aufbau der Welt. Hamburg: Meiner, 1961. Transl. “Preface to 2nd edition” in trans. of CARNAP, 1928, p. v-xi.

CARNAP, R. “Intellectual Autobiography” and “Comments and Replies”, 1963a, in SCHILPP, P. A. (ed.) The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap, LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1963, p. 3-84; p. 859-1016.

CRAWFORD, S. “The Myth of Logical Behaviorism and the Origins of the Identity Theory” in M. BEANEY, M. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of the History of Analytic Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 621–55.

DEMOPOULOS, W. On Theories. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2021.

FRANK, P. 1910. “A. Rey, Die Theorie der Physik bei den modernen Physikern, 1909.” Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik 21: 1910, Literaturberichte, p. 43-45.

FRANK, P. “Historical Introduction.” In FRANK, P. Modern Science and its Philosophy, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1949, p. 1-51.

FRANK, P. Philosophy of Science. The Link Between Science and Philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1957. Repr. Minola: Dover, 2004.

FRIEDMAN, M. “Carnap’s Aufbau Reconsidered.” Nous 21: 1987, p. 521-45. Repr. in FRIEDMAN, 1999, p. 89-113.

FRIEDMAN, M. “Epistemology in the Aufbau.” Synthese 93: 1992, p. 15-57. Repr. with postscript in FRIEDMAN, 1999, p. 114-164.

FRIEDMAN, M. Reconsidering Logical Positivism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

FRIEDMAN, M. Dynamics of Reason. Stanford: CSLI Publications, 2001.

LEONELLI, S. “On the Locality of Data and Claims about Phenomena.” Philosophy of Science 76: 2009, p. 737–749.

LEONELLI, S. “What Distinguishes Data from Models?”, European Journal for Philosophy of Science 9: 2019, Article 22

NEURATH, O. 1932a. “Soziologie im Physikalismus.” Erkenntnis 2: 1932a, p. 393-431. Trans. “Sociology and Physicalism” in AYER, 1959, p. 282-320, and “Sociology in the Framework of Physicalism” in NEURATH, 1983, p. 58-90.

NEURATH, O. “Protokollsätze.” Erkenntnis 3: 1932b, p. 204–14. Trans . “Protocol Sentences” in AYER, 1959, p. 199-208, and “Protocol Statements,” in NEURATH, 1983, p. 91–9.

NEURATH, O. “Pseudorationalismus der Falsifikation.” Erkenntnis 5: 1935, p. 353-65. Trans. “Pseudorationalism of Falsification” in NEURATH, 1983, p. 121-31.

NEURATH, O. Foundations of the Social Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

NEURATH, O. Philosophical Papers 1913-1946 (ed. by R.S. Cohen and M. Neurath). Dordrecht: Reidel, 1983.

RICHARDSON, A. Carnap’s Construction of the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

RICHARDSON, A. “Conceiving, Experiencing, and Conceiving Experiencing: Neo-Kantianism and the History of the Concept of Experience.” Topoi 22, 2003, p. 55-67.

SCHLICK, M. Allgemeine Erkenntnislehre, Berlin: Springer, 1918, 2nd rev. ed. 1925. Transl. General Theory of Knowledge, Vienna: Springer, 1974, repr. Lasalle: Open Court, 1985.

SCHLICK, M. “Über das Fundament der Erkenntnis.” Erkenntnis 4, 1934, p. 79-99. Transl. “The Foundation of Knowledge” in AYER, 1959, p. 209-27, and in SCHLICK, 1979, p. 370-87.

SCHLICK, M. “Facts and Propositions.” Analysis 2, 1935a, p. 65-70. Repr. in SCHLICK, 1979, p. 400-4.

SCHLICK, M. “Introduction.” In SCHLICK, 1935d, trans. “Introduction” in SCHLICK, 1979, 1935b, p. 405-7.

SCHLICK, M. “Sur les ‘Constatations’.” In Schlick 1935d, trans. “On ‘Affirmations’” in Schlick 1979, p. 407-13, 1935c.

SCHLICK, M. Sur le Fondament du Conaissance, Paris: Heinman & Cie, 1935d.

UEBEL, T. Empiricism at the Crossroads. The Vienna Circle’s Protocol-Sentence Debate. Chicago: Open Court, 2007.

UEBEL, T. 2009. “Neurath’s Protocol Statements Revisited: Sketch of a Theory of Scientific Testimony”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 40: 4–13.

UEBEL, T. “Three Challenges to the Complementarity of the Logic and the Pragmatics of Science”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 53, 2015, p. 23–32.

UEBEL, T. “Verificationism and (Some of) its Discontents.” Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 7.4, 201a9, p. 1-37.

UEBEL, T. “Neurath on Verstehen”, European Journal of Philosophy, 2019bp. 2791-2938.

UEBEL, T. 2020. “Schlick and Wittgenstein: The Theory of Affirmations Revisited.” Journal of the History of Philosophy 58, 2020, p. 141-166.

UEBEL, T. “Carnap, Knowledge of Other Minds, and Physicalism”, Philosopher’s Imprint, 2021 (forthcoming).

VAN FRAASEN, B. The Empirical Stance, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

WITTGENSTEIN, L. Philosophische Grammatik, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1969. Trans. Philosophical Grammar (ed. by R. Rhees), Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1974.

Downloads

Publicado

2021-10-25

Edição

Seção

Artigos