Testar, proliferar, normalizar: como as tecnologias de vigilância infiltraram os Jogos Olímpicos Paris 2024

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1590/2236-9996.2023-5603

Palavras-chave:

Jogos olímpicos, Vigilância, Visibilidade, Exceção, Paris 2024

Resumo

O presente artigo visa a discutir a correlação entre tecnologias de vigilância e Jogos Olímpicos. Estes tornaram-se um “espetáculo de segurança”, apenas atrás das guerras em termos de orçamento. Entretanto, a vigilância não se refere apenas à segurança, pois ela infiltrou-se em nosso cotidiano e tornou-se uma “cultura”. No contexto de preparação para os Jogos de 2024, as tecnologias de vigilância, por meio de uma gama de inovações, vêm sendo empregadas na construção do território da região Parisiense: desde câmeras de reconhecimento facial e sistemas de análise comportamental até drones e tecnologias antidrones. Se não fosse pelo contexto olímpico, elas seriam consideradas "exceções". Entretanto, como será discutido, elas foram normalizadas e integram todas as dimensões de planejamento deste megaevento esportivo.

Referências

AGAMBEN, G. (2005). State of exception. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

______. (2014). Comment l’obsession sécuritaire fait muter la démocratie. Disponível em: https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2014/01/AGAMBEN/49997. Acesso em 15 abr 2022.

AÏM, O. (2020). Les théories de la surveillance: du panoptique aux surveillance studies. Malakoff, Armand Colin.

ARANTES, P. E. (2014). O novo tempo do mundo e outros estudos sobre a era da emergência. São Paulo, Boitempo Editorial.

BESSI, R.; NAVARRO, S (2022). Brasil: Jogos Olímpicos, laboratório da “lei antiterror”. Disponível em: https://avispa.org/brasil-jogos-olimpicos-laboratorio-da-lei-antiterrorista/. Acesso em 21 abr 2022.

BOYLE, P. (2012). “Securing the Olympic Games: exemplifications of global governance”. In: LENSKYJ, H.; WAGG, S. (orgs.). The Palgrave Handbook of Olympic Studies. Londres, Palgrave MacMillan.

BROUDEHOUX, A.-M. (2012). “The social and spatial impacts of Olympic image construction: Beijing 2008”. In: LENSKYJ, H.; WAGG, S. (orgs.). The Palgrave Handbook of Olympic Studies. Londres, Palgrave MacMillan.

BROWNE, S. (2015). Dark matters: on the surveillance of blackness. Durham, Duke University Press.

BRUNET, R. (2020). Loi “sécurité globale”: des ONG alertent sur “les conséquences dangereuses pour les libertés individuelles”. Disponível em: https://www.france24.com/fr/france/20201121-loi-s%C3%A9curit%C3%A9-globale-des-ong-alertent-sur-les-cons%C3%A9quences-dangereuses-pour-les-libert%C3%A9s-individuelles. Acesso em 21 abr 2022.

CASTEL, R. (2003). L’insécurité sociale: qu’est-ce qu’être protégé? Paris, Seuil.

CISA (CYBERSECURITY & INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY AGENCY). (2022). FBI Releases PIN on Potential Cyber Activities During the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics and Paralympics. Disponível em: https://www.cisa.gov/uscert/ncas/current-activity/2022/02/01/fbi-releases-pin-potential-cyber-activities-during-2022-beijing#:~:text=The%20Federal%20Bureau%20of%20Investigation,activities%20to%20disrupt%20these%20events. Acesso em 14 abr 2022.

CISCO becomes Official Partner to the Olympic and Paralympic Games Paris 2024. (2021). Disponível em: https://news-blogs.cisco.com/emear/fr/2021/04/13/cisco-becomes-official-partner-to-the-olympic-and-paralympic-games-paris-2024/. Acesso em 23 abr 2022.

CNI - CONSEIL NATIONAL DES INDUSTRIES. (2020) Contrat Stratégique de la filière Industries de sécurité 2020/2022. Disponível em: https://www.conseil-national-industrie.gouv.fr/files_cni/files/csf/Securite/contrat_csf_industries_de_securite_janvier_2020.pdf. Acesso em 22 abr 2022.

COMITÉ DE PILOTAGE HÉRITAGE ET DURABILITÉ PARIS 2024. (2021). Plan Héritage et Durabilité des Jeux Olympiques et Paralympiques de Paris 2024. Disponível em: https://medias.paris2024.org/uploads/2021/09/Paris2024-210830-Legacy-Plan-FR.pdf. Acesso em 22 abr 2022.

DEBORD, G.; KNABB, K. (2005). The society of the spectacle. London, Rebel Press.

DUCKWORTH, A.; KRIEGER, J. (2021). “The world will be watching and so will NSA!”: a history of technology and security at the Olympic Games. The International Journal of the History of Sport. Abingdon, v. 38, n. 2–-, pp. 264-281.

FOUCAULT, M. (1997). Il faut défendre la société: cours au Collège de France, 1975-1976. Paris, Gallimard/Seuil.

______. (2004). Sécurité, territoire, population: cours au Collège de France, 1977-1978. Paris, Gallimard/Seuil.

______. (2016). Surveiller et punir. Paris, Gallimard.

FREEMAN, C.; PEREZ, C. (1988). “Structural crises of adjustment, business cycles and investment behavior”. In: DOSI, G. et al. (Orgs.). Technical change and economic theory. Londres, Pinter.

FUSSEY, P. et al. (2011). Securing and sustaining the Olympic city: reconfiguring London for 2012 and beyond. Burlington, Ashgate.

HAN, B.-C. (2015). The burnout society. Stanford, Stanford University Press.

HARVEY, D. (2001). Spaces of capital: towards a critical geography. Londres; Nova Iorque, Routledge.

HORNE, J. (2007). The four ‘knowns’ of sports mega-events. Essex, Leisure Studies, v. 26, n. 1, pp. 1-96.

IOC - INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE. (2017) Legacy Strategic Approach: Moving forward. Disponível em: https://stillmed.olympics.com/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/Documents/Olympic-Legacy/IOC_Legacy_Strategy_Full_version.pdf. Acesso em 25 abr 2022.

______. (s.d.). Olympic Legacy - Serving the Olympic Movement Long After the Game. Disponível em: https://olympics.com/ioc/olympic-legacy. Acesso em 21 abr 2022.

LA QUADRATURE DU NET. (2020). Racisme policier : les géants du Net font mine d’arrêter la reconnaissance faciale. Disponível em: https://www.laquadrature.net/2020/06/22/racisme-policier-les-geants-du-net-font-mine-darreter-la-reconnaissance-faciale/. Acesso em 21 abr 2022.

______. (2021). JO 2024 : la frénésie sécuritaire. Disponível em: https://www.laquadrature.net/2021/10/15/jo-2024-la-frenesie-securitaire/. Acesso em 15 abr 2022.

LAMIGEON, V. (2019). A Milipol, guerre technologique pour sécuriser les JO 2024. Disponível em: https://www.challenges.fr/entreprise/defense/thales-idemia-cs-a-milipol-la-guerre-technologique-fait-rage-pour-securiser-les-jo-2024_685854. Acesso em 21 abr 2022.

LEFEBVRE, H. (1974). La production de l’espace. L’Homme et la société. Paris, n. 31-32, pp. 15-32.

LÉGIFRANCE. LOI n° 2018-202 du 26 mars 2018 relative à l’organisation des jeux Olympiques et Paralympiques de 2024 (1)2018-202, 26 mar. 2018. Disponível em: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/loda/id/JORFTEXT000036742943/. Acesso em 24 abr 2022.

LENSKYJ, H.; WAGG, S. (2012). “Introduction”. In: LENSKYJ, H.; WAGG, S. (orgs.). The Palgrave Handbook of Olympic Studies. Londres, Palgrave MacMillan.

LIEUTAUD, P. (2021). “L’évolution de la filière s’inscrit dans l’héritage de Paris 2024”. Disponível em: https://emplois2024.fr/information/actualites/levolution-de-la-filiere-sinscri.html. Acesso em 21 abr 2022.

LYON, D. (2017). Surveillance culture: engagement, exposure, and ethics in digital modernity. International Journal of Communication. California, v. 11, pp. 824-842.

______. (2018). The culture of surveillance: watching as a way of life. Cambridge, Polity.

MANZENREITER, W.; HORNE, J. (2012). “Olympic tales from the East: Tokyo 1964, Seoul 1988 and Beijing 2008”. In: LENSKYJ, H.; WAGG, S. (orgs.). The Palgrave Handbook of Olympic Studies. Londres, Palgrave MacMillan.

MAZZUCATO, M. (2019). Preventing Digital Feudalism. Disponível em: https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/platform-economy-digital-feudalism-by-mariana-mazzucato-2019-10. Acesso em 19 abr 2022.

MENDES, D. (2016). Rio Olympics: view from the favelas – “I can’t leave the house. The shots are too close”. Disponível em: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/aug/02/rio-olympics-view-from-the-favelas-alemao-the-only-olympic-legacy-i-see-is-repression. Acesso em 25 abr 2022.

MENON, A. (2017). Announcing Cisco Kinetic for cities: new name, alignment and evolution for Smart+Connected digital platform. Disponível em: https://blogs.cisco.com/news/announcing-kinetic-for-cities. Acesso em 23 abr 2022.

MOROZOV, E.; BRIA, F. (2019). A cidade inteligente: Tecnologias urbanas e democracia. São Paulo, Ubu Editora.

NEUBAUER, R.; GRUNEAU, R. (2012). A Gold Medal for the Market: The 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. In: LENSKYJ, H.; WAGG, S. (Orgs.). The Palgrave Handbook of Olympic Studies. Londres, Palgrave MacMillan.

PICAUD, M. (2021). Les grands événements, olympiades de la sécurité urbaine numérique ? Disponível em: https://metropolitiques.eu/Les-grands-evenements-olympiades-de-la-securite-urbaine-numerique.html. Acesso em 25 abr 2022.

POURÉ, C.; LE FOLL, C. (2021). JO 2024 : la tentation sécuritaire. Disponível em: https://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/141021/jo-2024-la-tentation-securitaire. Acesso em 21 abr. 2022.

POYNTER, G. (2012). “The Olympics: East London’s renewal and legacy”. In: LENSKYJ, H.; WAGG, S. (orgs.). The Palgrave Handbook of Olympic Studies. Londres, Palgrave MacMillan.

PRESIDÊNCIA DA REPÚBLICA. (2016). LEI Nº 13.260, DE 16 DE MARÇO DE 2016. Disponível em: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2016/lei/l13260.htm. Acesso em 25 abr 2022.

PREUSS, H. (2007). The conceptualisation and measurement of mega sport event legacies. Journal of Sport & Tourism. Abingdon, v. 12, n. 3-4, pp. 207-228.

ROCHE, M. (200). Mega-events and modernity. Londres, Routledge.

SAMATAS, M. (2011). Surveillance in Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008: a comparison of the Olympic surveillance modalities and legacies in two different Olympic host regimes. New York, Urban Studies, v. 48, n. 15, pp. 3347–3366.

SCHEU, A.; PREUSS, H.; KÖNECKE, T. (2021). The legacy of the Olympic Games: a review. New York, Journal of Global Sport Management, v. 6, n. 3, pp. 212-233.

SCHUMPETER, J. A. (2014). Capitalism, socialism, and democracy. London; New York, Routledge.

TSUKALA, A. (2008). “Defining the terrorist threat in the post-September 11 era”. In: BIGO, D.; TSUKALA, A. (Orgs.). Terror, insecurity and liberty: illiberal practices of liberal regimes after 9/11. London, Routledge.

VIALE, F. (2022). Lecture critique de la législation olympique: la France au garde-à-vous devant le CIO. Saint-Étienne, Après la Révolution, v. Hors-série, pp. 35–44.

WHANNEL, G. (2012). “The rings and the box: television spectacle and the Olympics”. In: LENSKYJ, H.; WAGG, S. (orgs.). The Palgrave Handbook of Olympic Studies. Londres, Palgrave MacMillan.

ZUBOFF, S. (2019). The age of surveillance capitalism: the fight for a human future at the new frontier of power. London, Profile books.

______. (2020). You Are Now Remotely Controlled. Disponível em: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/24/opinion/sunday/surveillance-capitalism.html. Acesso em 25 abr 2022.

Downloads

Publicado

2022-12-10