• Rodrigo Franklin Frogeri UNIS Educational Group, Varginha
  • Pedro dos Santos Portugal Júnior Chandigarh University, Punjab
  • Fabrício Pelloso Piurcosky Technological University of Tulancingo, Hidalgo – Mexico
  • Meenu Bhardwaj Chandigarh University, Punjab
  • Juan-Carlos González-Islas Technological University of Tulancingo, Hidalgo – Mexico
  • Juan Carlos Arroyo Mendizábal UCATEC University, Cochabamba



Culture, Creativity, Educational institution, Social Representation, Universities.


The vagueness and confusion in the understanding of the concept of innovation by groups of individuals linked to different social contexts raises questions about how the concept of innovation can be formed at the level of the individual. The understanding of the concept of innovation may be varied and depend on idiographic cultural aspects or particular characteristics. Thus, the following questions arise: Can the meaning of innovation be varied and depend on idiographic cultural aspects such as country, age, gender, language, or social position (e.g., students, teachers, or professionals)? or (ii) Is the meaning of innovation independent of idiographic cultural aspects, but depends on the context of the individual? Researchers involved in this study are especially interested in understanding how groups of students, teachers, and Information Technology professionals in different cultural contexts perceive the concept of innovation. Social Representation Theory (SRT) was applied as the theoretical basis of the study. A quantitative and qualitative approach was adopted to a sample of 584 participants from four countries (Bolivia, Brazil, India and Mexico). The results suggest that the countries involved in the study do not have an innovation-oriented culture at the national level, but innovation may be part of some groups, especially in universities. Cultural parameters, not on a global or national level, but on an organizational or group level, may have the greatest influence on an individual's perception of the concept of innovation. The concept of innovation develops within the micro context in which the individual is embedded.


Abric, J. C. La recherche du noyau central et de la zone muette des représentations sociales. In Méthodes d’étude des représentations sociales (pp. 60–80). Eré, 2003.

Aichouni, M., Touahmia, M., Al-Ghamdi, A., Ait-Messaoudene, N., Al-Hamali, R. M., Al-Ghonamy, A., & Al-Badawi, E. Creativity and Innovation among Gifted Saudi Students-An Empirical Study. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 1371–1379., 2015.

AL-Mubaraki, H., & Aruna, M. Technology Innovation for SME Growth : A Perception for the Emerging Economies. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 2013, 4(3), 156–163.

Aslan, A. E., Duman, B., Sen, D., Duran, C., & Atarbay, S. A Pilot Study on the Perception of Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 2016, 16(64), 139–156.

Bhasin, K. This Is The Difference Between “Invention” And “Innovation”., 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2020, from

Bloch, C. Assessing recent development in innovation measurement: The third edition of the Oslo Manual. Science and Public Policy, 2007, 34(1), 23–34.

Bonesso, S., Gerli, F., & Scapolan, A. The individual side of ambidexterity: Do individuals’ perceptions match actual behaviors in reconciling the exploration and exploitation trade-off? European Management Journal, 2014, 32(3), 392–405.

Brinkmann, S. The role of teachers’ beliefs in the implementation of learner-centred education in India. UCL. 2016. Retrieved from

Carayannis, E. G., Evans, D., & Hanson, M. A cross-cultural learning strategy for entrepreneurship education: Outline of key concepts and lessons learned from a comparative study of entrepreneurship students in France and the US. Technovation, 2003, 23(9), 757–771.

Chen, Y. Dynamic ambidexterity: How innovators manage exploration and exploitation. Business Horizons, 2017, 60(3), 385–394.

Cheung, O. L. Impact Of Innovative Environment On Economic Growth: An Examination Of State Per Capita GDP And Personal Income. Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), 2014, 12(3), 257.

Clark, L., Birkhead, A. S., Fernandez, C., & Egger, M. J. A Transcription and Translation Protocol for Sensitive Cross-Cultural Team. Qualitative Health Research, 2017, 27(12), 1751 –1764.

Correia, J. C., & Joia, L. A. CIO competencies: A social representation analysis. In 20th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2014, 2014, 1–13.


PSICOLOGIA SOCIAL: Desafios Contemporâneos, 2012, 1(3), 94–103.

Cropley, D. H. The role of creativity as a driver of innovation. ICMIT 2006 Proceedings - 2006 IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology, 2, 2006, 561–565.

DeCusatis, C. Creating, growing and sustaining efficient innovation teams. Creativity and Innovation Management, 2008, 17(2), 155–164.

Dutta, S., Lanvin, B., & Wunsch-Vincent, S. GLOBAL INNOVATION INDEX 2020 - Who Will Finance Innovation? (13th ed.). Cornell University. 2020.

Dyer, C., Choksi, A., Awasty, V., Iyer, U., Moyade, R., Nigam, N., Sheth, S. Knowledge for teacher development in India: The importance of “local knowledge” for in-service education. International Journal of Educational Development, 2004, 24(1), 39–52.

Edwards, M., Sánchez-Ruiz, L. M., Tovar-Caro, E., & Ballester-Sarrias, E. Engineering students’ perceptions of innovation and entrepreneurship competences. Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE. 2009,

Errington, E. The impact of teacher beliefs on flexible learning innovation: Some practices and possibilities for academic developers. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 2004, 41(1), 39–47.

Guimelli, C., & Rouquette, M. L. Contribution du modèle associative des schèmes cognitifs de base à l’analyse structural des représentations sociales. Bulletin de Psychologie, 1992, 45(405), 196–202.

Iorgulescu, M.-C., & Răvar, A. S. Measuring Managers’ Perception of Innovation in the Romanian Hospitality Industry. Procedia Economics and Finance, 2013, 6(13), 512–522.

Jodelet, D. Representações sociais: Um domínio em expansão. In As representações sociais. Rio de Janeiro, EdUERJ: 2001, p. 17–44.

Joia, L. A., & Melon, M. The social representation of success in IT projects. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business. 2019.

Junni, P., Sarala, R. M., Tarba, S. Y., Liu, Y., & Cooper, C. L. Commentary on “radical HRM innovation and competitive advantage: The Moneyball story.” Human Resource Management, 2006, 45(1), 127–145.

Law, K. M. Y., & Breznik, K. Impacts of innovativeness and attitude on entrepreneurial intention: among engineering and non-engineering students. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 2017, 27(4), 683–700.

Lee, A. S., & Baskerville, R. L. Generalizing Generalizability in Information Systems Research. Information Systems Research, 2003, 14(3), 221–243.

March, J. G. Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning. Organization Science, 1991, 2(1), 71–87.

Marchand, P., & Ratinaud, P. L’analyse de similitude appliquée aux corpus textuels : les primaires socialistes pour l’élection présidentielle française. In Actes des 11èmes Journées Internationales d’Analyse des Données Textuelles (JADT). 2012, 687–699. Retrieved from http://lexicometrica.univ-, Pascal et al. - L’analyse de similitude appliquee aux corpus textuels.pdf

Marchisotti, G. G., Joia, L. A., & Carvalho, R. B. De. A Representação Social de Cloud Computing pela

Marková, I. A fabricação da teoria de representações sociais. Cadernos de Pesquisa, 2017, 47(163), 358–375.

Mendes, F. R. P., Zangão, M. O. B., Gemito, M. L. G. P., & Serra, I. da C. C. Representações sociais dos estudantes de enfermagem sobre assistência hospitalar e atenção primária. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 2016, 69(2), 343–350.

Moscovici, S. A representação social da psicanálise. Rio de Janeiro: ZAHAR, 1978.

Moscovici, S. The phenomenon of social representations. In Social representations: explorations in social psychology. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Mutlu, E. E., & Nazli, M. Perception of Innovation and Its Characteristics: the Case of Izmir. International Journal of Management Economics and Business, 2018, 14(4), 0–0.

Nager, A., Hart, D. M., Ezell, S., & Atkinson, R. D. THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF INNOVATION IN THE UNITED STATES Who Are America’s Innovators? Washington, DC. 2016.

Retrieved from

O’Reilly, C. A., & Tushman, M. L. Ambidexterity as a dynamic capability: Resolving the innovator’s dilemma. Research in Organizational Behavior, 2018, 28, 185–206.

Oakley, K., Sperry, B., & Pratt, A. The art of innovation: How fine arts graduates contribute to innovation. Technology. London, UK: NESTA. 2008. Retrieved from

Percepção dos Profissionais Brasileiros de Tecnologia da Informação. RAE- Revista de Administração de Empresas, 2019, 59(10), 16–28.

Pereira, F. J. C. Análise de dados qualitativos aplicados às Representações Sociais. In Perspectivas teórico-metodológicas em representações sociais. João Pessoa: Editora Universitária UFPB, 2005.

Popa, I. L., Preda, G., & Boldea, M. A THEORETICAL APPROACH OF THE CONCEPT OF INNOVATION. Managerial Challenges of the Contemporary Society, 2010, (1), 151–156.

Pope, M. R. Creativity and the computer professional: The impact of personality perception on innovation approach preferences in terms of creative thinking and behavior. ProQuest Information & Learning, US. 1997.

Rae, D. Entrepreneurial learning: peripherality and connectedness. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 2017, 23(3), 486–503.

Schnellbächer, B., Heidenreich, S., & Wald, A. Antecedents and effects of individual ambidexterity – A cross-level investigation of exploration and exploitation activities at the employee level. European Management Journal, 2019, 37(4), 442–454.

Stock, R. M., Six, B., & Zacharias, N. A. Linking multiple layers of innovation-oriented corporate culture , product program innovativeness , and business performance : a contingency approach. J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci., 2013, 41, 283–299.

Teodoro, A. N., Przeybilovicz, É., & Cunha, M. A. Governança de tecnologia da informação: uma investigação sobre a representação do conceito. R.Adm., 2014, 49(2), 307–321.

Tian, M., Deng, P., Zhang, Y., & Salmador, M. P. How does culture influence innovation? A systematic literature review. Management Decision, 2018, 56(5), 1088–1107.

Tushman, M. L., & O’Reilly, C. A. Ambidextrous organizations: Managing evolutionary and revolutionary change. California Management Review, 1996, (4), 8–30.

Vaast, E. Danger is in the eye of the beholders: Social representations of Information Systems security in healthcare. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 2007, 16(2), 130–152.

Vergara, S. C. Projetos e Relatórios de Pesquisa em Administração (16th ed.). São Paulo: Atlas, 2016.

Vergara, S. C., & Ferreira, V. C. P. A representação social de ONGs segundo formadores de opinião do município do Rio de Janeiro. Revista de Administração Pública - RAP, 2005, 39(5), 1137–1159.

Vergès, P. Représentations sociales partagés, périphériques, indifférentes, d’ une minorité: méthodes d’ approche. Provence: LAMES, Université de Provence - CNRS. 1994.

Vergès, P. Ensemble de programmes permettant l’analyse des évocations: manuel Version 15. Aix-en-Provence. 2003.

Vlados, C., Deniozos, N., & Chatzinikolaou, D. Global Crisis, Innovation and Change Management: Towards a New Systemic Perception of the Current Globalization

Restructuring. International Business Research, 2018, 11(8), 9.

Voelklein, C., & Howarth, C. A review of controversies about social representations theory: A British debate. Culture and Psychology, 2005, 11(4), 431–454.

Wachelke, J., Wolter, R., & Matos, F. R. Efeito do Tamanho da Amostra na Análise de Evocações para Representações Sociais. LIBERABIT, 2016, 22(2), 153–160. Retrieved from

Yatigammana, M., Johar, M. G. M., & Gunawardhana, C. Impact of Innovations Attributes on e-learning Acceptance among Sri Lankan Postgraduate Students.

Kelaniya Journal of Management, 2014, 2(1), 1.